Primitive people speak primitive languages.
We know, from anthropological research, that there are no primitive click on Write An Essay About What Other Language today; indeed, it may be that the "Neandertals" were the last truly primitive people. And, there are no primitive languages, either. Even languages that have been reconstructed, such as Proto-Indoeuropean the parent language of most European languages as well as Persian, Hindi, etc.
Some languages are "harder" than others. While languages differ from one another in just which parts are simple and which are complex, all languages seem to be about equally complex or difficult to learn in their totality.
For example, if we compare English and Russian we find that English nouns are relatively simple, while verbs are rather complex; in Russian, the nouns are hard and verbs are relatively simple. If we ask a naive English speaker how many vowels English has, the answer is usually "five".
This is because we tend to interpret any question about language as a question about the writing system. The English alphabet has 5 symbols that are normally used for the representation of vowels. But the English language has between 10 and 12 basic vowel sounds; this is the answer the linguist is interested in.
Language is first and foremost oral; speech as a means of communication has been around for perhapsyears more info more, while writing has existed for only about 6, as far as we know. Many languages, including many Native American languages as well as most of the creole languages of the Caribbean, exist without a written tradition. This in no way diminishes their language-ness.
Grammar is a set of prescriptive rules.
World's best writing enhancement tool. Immediate results. Try now!. 40 Useful Words and Phrases we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, and there will often be other ways. How To Write In A Foreign Language. Quintus email, resume, a short essay, or some other extended and as a result I can’t even write the only language I. But it really is weirder than pretty much every other language Become a Friend of Aeon to save articles and enjoy other exclusive benefits. Syndicate this Essay. Some Notes on Language , and they have to learn to read and write. While the underlying shape of language is biological, In other words.
When we think of grammar, we tend to think of the sorts of rules drilled into us by our language arts and English teachers: When linguists work to discover the grammar of a language, they are looking for descriptive rules that model the linguistic patterns which people carry around inside their heads.
We follow most of these rules unconsciously. In most cases no-one ever teaches them Write An Essay About What Other Language us see below ; and, in most cases, we cannot articulate them. We "know how" to use our language, but we don't typically "know why. Furthermore, in some languages, like Spanish and Russian, so-called "double negatives" are the rule, rather than the exception. Note the Spanish and Russian expressions for I don't see anything. Ya ne vizhu nichevo.
These are the normal, indeed the only, way of expressing this in Spanish and Russian. If language worked like formal logic, Spanish and Russian speakers would be suffering from a permament case of illogic. Since speakers of Spanish and Russian appear to be normal human beings, we have to conclude that language does not obey the rules of formal logic.
Thus, the rule against double negatives formulated by Bishop Lowth is not a grammar rule, but rather a social rule having to do with what he considered to be the acceptable use of English. Language is pure and unchanging. As a conservative society heavily focused on written, rather than oral, forms of language, we tend to think that change, in language as in many other things, is bad.
A whole industry of language "experts" such as Edwin Newman and William Safire regularly rant and rave against whatever shift in meaning or usage is current. In fact, change in language is constant and the really fundamental changes usually go unnoticed. For example, between Middle and Modern English many English vowels changed their pronunciation, so that words like "house" and "wife", today pronounced [haws] and [wayf], were pronounced as [hu: These sorts of changes, and others, are still going on in English even as we speak.
Speakers have to know how to combine their words into meaningful sentences that call attention to something and then provide information about it. Again using English as an example, English speakers "know" how to form yes-no questions from statements like She is in the kitchen? Speakers must know the meaning of the words they use. Finally, speakers must know how to use their language appropriately to accomplish what they want in a given social situation.
All normal human children, everywhere, acquire the language of their social setting at about the same pace and in the same way. These differences do not seem to affect the rate or quality of children's acquisition of language; in a sense, children acquire language in much the same Write An Essay About What Other Language as they acquire the skill of walking.
However, children who are isolated, for some reason, from all forms of linguistic interaction do not acquire language, and if they reach puberty without exposure to language they may never be able to acquire more than a very rudimentary linguistic ability. By the time they are around years of age, children have mastered some of the most complex and subtle rules of their language, rules which click here teacher of language could ever teach them.
Of course, they still have lots of vocabulary to learn, as well as some of the pragmatic rules of language use in different social situations, and they have to learn to read and write. While the underlying shape of language is biological, any given language itself is a cultural artifact. The best way to illustrate this is to take the words for the domesticated animal which English speakers refer to as a dog.
All languages have a word for this animal; no language has a word for "half-a-dog. At the same article source, Write An Essay About What Other Language, the words we find in different languages.
None of these words has a privileged connection to the animal itself. Each is an arbitrary but conventional answer to the article source of naming these familiar domesticated animals.
Infinite use of finite media. Although languages are complex, they are not infinitely complex. The number of rules that anyone needs to "know" to create sentences in their language is relatively small, and the number of link kinds of sentences is quite small. Still, the number of sentences that can be produced by any speaker of a language is potentially infinite.
Language is patterned click a number of levels of organization: This is what makes the infinite use mentioned above possible. All languages make it possible for their speakers to name something and then make some kind of assertion about whatever was named.
In other words, all languages allow for sentences that contain a subject and a predicate. A Write An Essay About What Other Language fact about all known languages is that they are all learnable by human beings.
All normal human children acquire the language of their social group, and many perhaps most! While all humans appear to have a built-in, genetically provided capacity for language acquisition, the actual acquisition of language must take place in a social context. The social context determines whether the language acquired is English, Russian, or Inuit, etc.
We sat down and literally read out of the e-book step by step how you can create characters and it actually labored surprisingly nicely. Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein labored for the Washington Publish however they weren't assigned to the White Home or Capitol Hill; they initially reported on the Watergate break-in as a local crime story.
Below the Word Prize Table there's an area containing 4 financial quantities on white tiles beneath the heading 'Instant Prize' (the 'Prompt Prize desk').
Kiana Writer: I heard that the person who came second really thought she gained and was shocked to see you sitting there by the prize caskets :D Anything you'd wish to say to her.
Unlike most animal vocalization systems, which require that a stimulus be physically present for the vocalization to take place, human language allows us to talk about things click here are absent in either space or time, or both. Without this feature, humans would not be able to talk about dinosaurs, or Cleopatra.
We can add that this feature also allows us to talk about things that never existed, such as Klingons. Without it, we could have neither history or fiction.
Also unlike other animals, which typically have a fixed set of vocalizations, humans can increase the number of expressions at their disposal by inventing words. This feature allows us to add new words to our vocabulary such as hard driveclickand gigabyte. The analytic model of language includes the notion of linguistic relativismwhich suggests that there is no point in trying to rank languages on any kind of scale.
All human languages that we have any direct information about appear to contain all the characteristics necessary for language.
IELTS Writing Task 2
In this view, there is no qualitative difference between a language and a dialect; the reasons why a particular variety of speech gets labeled as a dialect instead of as a language must be sought elsewhere.
In particular, the reasons are to be found in the political, social, and economic value placed on the speakers of the language variety in question. The people who wield political, economic, and social control speak the "language"; those who do not speak the "dialect.
The realization that languages and dialects are not qualitatively different, and that attitudes toward them really reflect social prejudices, has led some linguists to say continue reading a language is "a dialect with an army and a navy.
Sometimes the negotiation is spectacularly unsuccessful, as when the Oakland California school board attempted to declare African American Vernacular English Ebonics a "language. African Americans in the US do not have "an army and a navy"; therefore, they are not entitled to have a "language.
I tend to avoid the difficulty of the word dialect by using variety instead.
We can even talk about varieties of creole English, such as Jamaican, Trinadadian, Barbadian, Belizean, and so on. Or, we can go in the other direction, and discuss varieties of Romance such as Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian; varieties of Indo-European such as Germanic and Balto-Slavic; or even varieties of human language such as Indo-European, Austronesian, and so on. It all depends on what level of abstraction we are interested in. Although from an analytic viewpoint they "know" a language as well as anyone, speakers of non-standard varieties of language are often assumed by the folk model to be language-deficient.
In the Caribbean, this manifests itself especially when creole-speaking children get to school and come up against the standard language in an intense way for the first time. Teachers, who through no fault of their own very often have only minimal Write An Essay About What Other Language, are aware only of the folk model for language.
They assume that deviation from standard language forms is evidence for a lack of languageand that children "have no grammar. This ain't no joke The prescriptive rule mentioned above, about not using double negatives, was created by Bishop Robert Lowth in in England.
The idea was to make English more like formal mathematical logic, and thus improve the thinking of English speakers. But this was not a descriptive rule for English; English has always used double negatives, as this sentence from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles written in the time of Alfred the Great illustrates: I had this lesson driven home to me inwhen I was working on a description of Carriacou speech.
I took a few days to visit friends in Click to see more, and met a Grenadian physician at a dinner party.
He was an Afro-Grenadian, but of course upper class. He inquired as to what I was doing, and I explained that I was studying the speech of Carriacou people who are considered rural and backward by many "mainland" Grenadians. I told him that the end product would be a grammar of their speech, including the rules they follow to produce sentences and so on.
I wonder if you realize the political implications of what you are doing. If you show that these rural people speak a real language with grammar rules, then you are showing that they are really human beings see more that we have been wrong in treating them the way we have all these years.