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list goes and WhileThe purpose of this study is to describe an online community-based English extensive reading contest to investigate whether the participants' intrinsic, extrinsic, and interpersonal motivations and learning results show significant gender differences.

A total of valid questionnaires females and males from Taiwanese high school students and 15 interviewees from the students receiving awards were the subjects in this study. The findings show that females had a stronger participative intrinsic motivation, while males displayed a higher participative interpersonal motivation. Furthermore, female average scores were higher than the male ones on the comprehension tests.

Even though the final results of the total scores for females were still higher than those of males, male scores for the interactivity tests were on average higher than those of females.

The phenomena and implications behind the participative motivations are specifically discussed and explained.

The beginning of chapter 1 asks teachers to think about the role of reading in their life, past and present, and on the influence of family, community, school, culture, and individual characteristics in defining the role of reading for them. Pages discuss an approach to reading instruction based on extensive reading. Included is an account by a teacher who taught a reading course based on extensive reading. One of her reasons was that she wanted to give students more responsibility.

Pages explain what a reading journal is and include two entries from students' journals. Many studies have shown that reading can have a beneficial effect on second language learning, but relatively few of these have focused on extensive reading in classroom environments over a period of time. This study compares an extensive reading class against a more traditional class involving intensive reading and vocabulary exercises.

The classes were part of a Saudi college presessional course, and this classroom setting posed several problems for the extensive reading approach, including relatively weak students, read article environment where pleasure reading is atypical, and the course being of short duration. The result is that the reported extensive reading class was carried out in what could be considered challenging conditions.

Nevertheless, gain scores in reading comprehension ability, reading speed, and vocabulary acquisition showed that continue reading extensive reading approach was just as effective as the intensive approach, even though some of the measurement instruments for these variables should have favored the intensive approach.

Moreover, the extensive reading participants reported much more positive attitudes toward reading, their class, and their learning than the participants in the intensive reading group. Overall, these results indicate that, for the variables studied, the extensive reading approach was as good as, or better than, the more focused intensive reading.

This study is significant for its Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd that extensive reading was unpopular among the subjects. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between EFL learners' perceived reading strategies, vocabulary size, and reading comprehension.

In addition to providing descriptive information about each variable in this relationship, the study examined how certain learner variables such as gender, and Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd amount click extensive reading may impact this relationship.

The participants in the study were females and males first-year university students enrolled in seven different higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia. Participants completed a reading strategies survey and took a vocabulary size test Schmitt, and a reading comprehension test.

Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the participants' performance on the two tests and their reported reading strategies use, and to assess the relationship between the study's three main variables.

Analysis of variance and t -tests were also used to examine gender and proficiency differences in the participants' perceived use of Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd strategies, vocabulary size, and reading comprehension. In general, Saudi EFL first-year university students had a low reading ability and an estimated small vocabulary size — word familieswhich is far below the threshold level needed for reading unsimplified English texts.

Except for a few strategies like critical reading, summarizing, using typographical aids, and noting text characteristics, the participants reported using most of the reading strategies with high and moderate frequencies. They also reported significantly more frequent use of problem-solving strategies. Significant gender differences favoring females were found in the participants' performance on the two tests and their reports of reading strategies use. Participants with larger vocabulary size and higher reading proficiency reported using reading strategies more frequently than lower proficiency students.

The study concludes with some pedagogical implications and recommendations for further research. Research indicates that extensive reading has been an effective approach for learning a language and therefore, more investigation in different contexts is needed.

One major requirement for the success of the extensive reading approach is the availability of large amounts of materials for doing extensive reading. In many countries including Saudi Arabia, it has not been easy to gain access to such materials; however, the Internet has become as a potential solution for the lack of these materials.

This qualitative research explores the experiences of Saudi female and male EFL learners in doing extensive reading through the Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd. Http:// female and five male Saudi EFL learners are interviewed in this study.

A skeptical group of three females and two males was adde d to the study to learn more about their attitudes towards Internet reading.

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Samples of the participants' writing that were written over a period of time are analyzed. Emails are used for facilitating and arranging the interviews and for follow Esl Thesis Statement Ghostwriting Websites For University questions whenever needed. Using multiple qualitative methods including interviews, documents, and emails, this study attempts to answer three research questions about the attitudes and beliefs of the participants concerning the following issues: This study shows that the majority of the participants have positive attitudes and successful experiences with Internet reading.

The participants stated that Internet reading has many benefits, features and some problems. Based on the responses of this study, Internet reading has a positive impact on writing styles as well as cultural awareness. In addition, she presents the results of a survey conducted among secondary school students regarding their reading preferences.

The results of both the theoretical discussion and the survey indicate the significance Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd narrative structures for success in Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd programmes. The popularity of the genre of fantasy is made clear, while the literary canon remains a major resource for those texts to be included in extensive reading programmes.

Intermediate learners of Spanish read a Spanish newspaper article with vocabulary assistance either before reading, while reading, both, or without any such assistance. Reading performance was significantly better for students receiving vocabulary assistance during reading, but not for those Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd it before reading.

Reading time of the newspaper article was less for students receiving prereading vocabulary assistance, but total lesson time the prereading time plus reading time was more for those students.

Given the particular activities of this study, a vocabulary activity before reading appears to speed up reading without affecting comprehension, while vocabulary assistance during reading appears to improve comprehension without affecting speed. In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners.

Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning DDLto make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the authenticity of the language learners are exposed to? The simplified nature of such corpora may limit learners' exposure to lexical chunks, which are fundamental to the acquisition of natural and fluent language.

This paper compares lexical chunks in graded corpora and the British National Corpus, examining frequency, type, and composition, to evaluate the 'authenticity' of graded input. Despite some differences, it is argued that the scale and type of lexical chunks are sufficient to provide input that reflects authentic language, suggesting that graded readers may offer an acceptable balance of accessibility and authenticity.

This qualitative study describes the attitudes and beliefs of two groups of ESL learners regarding extensive reading of authentic texts. In particular, it aims to focus on their beliefs and attitudes regarding vocabulary development through extensive reading of authentic materials.

It investigates their point of view toward their experience with extensive reading in a three-month ESL course called Reading Club in which extensive reading was the main focus of the course.

The participants consist of two groups of ESL learners, one of which includes five students while the other includes four students. Using multiple qualitative methods including interviewing, document analysis, notes, and email follow-ups, this study has attempted to answer a group of research questions relevant to the following points: The findings indicate that despite various reading difficulties they have encountered, the students of both groups have positive attitudes toward extensive reading of authentic texts and are motivated to read after the course has finished.

The findings also show that extensive reading has helped students develop and improve various language skills, including vocabulary, reading for meaning, grammar, listening, speaking, Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd pronunciation.

The most salient finding is that both approaches, incidental and intentional vocabulary learning, have been employed to develop second language vocabulary. Vocabulary is an integral part of language. Without adequate vocabulary knowledge, a second language learner's conversational fluency and reading comprehension suffer. Today, many ESL students have access to the Internet, where they article source read extensively in L2 and improve their reading skill as well as vocabulary knowledge.

This dissertation project is a qualitative study that describes the approaches and attitudes of ESL business students towards learning vocabulary through Internet reading.

It also examines the participants' vocabulary knowledge throughout an 8-week period.

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They were divided into two groups of 9 students each, referred to as readers and non-readers. Both groups were asked to complete a questionnaire and take a pretest and posttest, in order to assess their receptive vocabulary size.

Readers were asked to read extensively on the Internet, keep regular vocabulary logs, write journal entries, participate in interviews, and take a final vocabulary written test tha t assessed the deep knowledge of the vocabulary items they attempted to learn during the 8-week period.

The results showed that readers scored higher in the posttest, compared to their mean score in the pretest, non-readers maintained the same mean score both in the pretest and posttest. In the vocabulary interviews, the readers' scores at the word familiarity and word meaning levels were higher than their scores at the word form and word usage levels.

Similarly, in the final vocabulary written test, readers obtained relatively high scores at the word meaning level, their scores at the word usage level were relatively Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd.

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Based on the interviews, the journal entries, and the vocabulary logs, readers read extensively on the Internet about a wide range of topics such as business, entertainment, health, politics, and shopping, in addition to reading academic articles. They also employed some common vocabulary learning strategies including guessing the word's meaning from context, using a dictionary, and keeping a vocabulary notebook. These participants showed positive attitudes towards extensive reading and vocabulary learning on the Internet.

For years the quality of Ethiopian education has been lamented over and one of the factors in the students' inability to benefit from their lessons is their lack of reading skills. In response, many organisations, such as The British Council, are providing primary schools with readers.

This thesis examines if there is any tangible effect on the students' reading skills by conducting a comparative study between two government schools that received a donation of primary readers through the Primary Readers Scheme of the British Council and two schools that did not.

To begin with a short review of the suitability of the readers selected by the teachers after an initial pilot scheme is made. Then students were tested in this evaluation to check if there had been a Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd improvement in the reading skills of the students in the school that received donations of supplementary readers.

It was found that there has been no significant increase in the students' reading abilities because government schools lack the capacity to utilise supplementary readers.

Most of the librarians are not qualified, while the teachers, though qualified, lack training in how to use supplementary readers and also tend to be demotivated.

Moreover, the administration and running of most of the schools libraries limit the books' accessibility. It is also very likely that the country's socio-economic situation in general and the children's backgrounds do not encourage the habit of reading for click the following article. Consequently, modifications are necessary to maximise the benefits of extensive reading in the future, such as training teachers and librarians as well as encouraging supplementary reading amongst the students.

It concludes that though extensive reading schemes produce impressive results in experimental situations, care should be taken in actual implementation of such schemes in real life. The purpose of this article is to provide second language L2 reading teachers and curriculum developers a model of a balanced reading curriculum that includes an extensive reading ER component.

In this chapter I here review the evidence now available on whether literature-based instruction and wide reading actually have a positive influence on children's growth as readers. I will consider several areas of research: This review will focus primarily on empirical studies that have included measures of word recognition, basic comprehension of simple Professional Bibliography Editor Sites For Phd, and, especially, knowledge of word meanings.

Although these facets of reading do not directly reflect the major goals of many advocates of literature-based instruction and wide reading, it is well established that measures of word recognition, passage comprehension, and vocabulary are powerful predictors of most aspects of literate behavior.

As compared to children who perform well on these measures, children who perform poorly also will perform less well on almost any other measure of literacy; and it is a distressing fact that they are likely to continue to do poorly. Therefore, it is important to determine whether literature-based instruction and wide reading lead to improvements in basic literacy.

In contemporary language courses of two or three years, extensive reading skill will not develop by itself, but must be cultivated. A procedure is described: The teacher displays attractive and very simple French books, magazines and newspapers in a corner of the classroom, and encourages pupils to try them by introducing certain items "This is a good 'roman policier'" and giving higher grades for voluntary reading.