Publishing is the dissemination of literaturemusicor information —the activity of making information available to the general public.
In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same.
Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books the "book trade" and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internetthe scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishingwebsitesblogsvideo game publishersand the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: Publication is also important as a legal concept:.
Publishing became possible with the invention of writingand became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development read more books. Click here Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circabut there are no known surviving examples of his printing.
Aroundin what is commonly regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce, and more widely available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books.
The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany inwith publishing of magazines following in Historically, publishing has been handled by publisherswith the history of self-publishing progressing slowly until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishingwhich has been made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet.
The establishment of the World Wide Web in soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are easily created by almost Popular Thesis Proposal Ghostwriter For Hire Uk with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed closely by the history of blogging.
Commercial publishing also progressed, as previously printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online booksonline newspapersand online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of their time buying or commissioning copy; newspaper publishers, by contrast, usually hire their staff to produce copy, although they may also employ freelance journalists, called stringers.
At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, and the majority come from previously unpublished authors.
If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscriptsthen the manuscript is placed in the slush pilewhich publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review.
The acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication. Unsolicited submissions have a very low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive.
Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent. This policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto Popular Thesis Proposal Ghostwriter For Hire Uk literary agents.
At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of author earnings varying between 10 and Web Design Resume Portfolio percent to pay for their services.
Some writers follow a non-standard route to publication. For example, this may include bloggers who have attracted large readerships producing a book based on their websites, books based on Internet memesinstant "celebrities" such as Joe the Plumberretiring sports figures and in general anyone a publisher feels could produce a marketable book. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter.
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For a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor Popular Thesis Proposal Ghostwriter For Hire Uk publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title. An editor who discovers or champions a book that subsequently becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once if a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of intellectual property rights and agree on royalty rates.
The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed i. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the intended formats of publication — mass-market paperback"trade" paperback and hardback are the most common options.
The situation is slightly more complex if electronic formatting is to be used. Where distribution is to be by CD-ROM or other physical media, there is no reason to treat this form differently from a paper format, and national copyright is an acceptable approach. But the possibility of Internet download without the ability to restrict physical distribution within national boundaries presents legal problems that are usually solved by selling language or translation rights rather than national rights.
Thus, Internet access across the European Union is relatively open because of the laws forbidding discrimination based on nationality, but the fact of publication in, say, France, limits the target market to those who read French.
Having agreed on the scope of the publication and the formats, the parties in a book agreement must then agree on royalty ratesthe percentage of the gross retail price that will be paid to the author, and the advance payment.
The publisher must estimate the potential sales in each market and balance projected revenue against production costs. Advances vary greatly between books, with established authors commanding larger advances.
Although listed as distinct stages, parts of these occur concurrently. As editing of text progresses, front cover design and initial layout takes place, and sales and marketing of the book begins. A decision is taken to publish a work, and the here legal issues resolved, the author may be asked to improve the quality of the work through rewriting or smaller changes and the staff will edit the work.
Publishers may maintain Popular Thesis Proposal Ghostwriter For Hire Uk house styleand staff will copy edit to ensure that the work matches the style and grammatical requirements of each market. Editors often choose or refine titles and headlines. Editing may also involve structural changes and requests for more information. Some publishers employ fact checkersparticularly regarding non-fiction works. When a final text is agreed upon, click next phase is design.
This may include artwork being commissioned or confirmation of layout.
In publishing, the word "art" also indicates photographs. Depending on the number of photographs required by the work, photographs may also be licensed from photo libraries. For those works that are particularly rich in illustrations, the publisher may contract a picture researcher to find and license the photographs required for the work.
The design process prepares the work for printing through processes such as typesettingdust jacket composition, specification of paper quality, binding method and casing. The type of book being produced determines the amount of design required. For standard fiction titles, the design is usually restricted to typography and cover design. For books containing illustrations or images, design takes on a much larger role in laying out how the page looks, how chapters begin and end, colours, typography, cover design and Popular Thesis Proposal Ghostwriter For Hire Uk materials such as posters, catalogue images, and other sales materials.
Non-fiction illustrated titles are the most design intensive books, requiring extensive use of images and illustrations, captions, typography and a deep involvement and consideration of the reader experience.
The activities of typesetting, page layout, the production of negatives, plates from the negatives and, for hardbacks, the preparation of brasses for the spine legend and Imprint are now all computerized. Prepress computerization evolved mainly in about the last twenty years of the 20th century.
If the work is to be distributed electronically, the final files are saved in formats appropriate to the target operating systems of the hardware used for reading.
These may include PDF files. The sales and marketing stage is closely intertwined with the editorial process. As front cover images are produced, or chapters are edited, sales people may start talking about the book with their customers to build early interest. Publishing companies often produce advanced information sheets that may be sent to customers or click publishers to gauge possible sales.
As early interest is measured, this information feeds back through the editorial process and may affect the formatting of the book and the strategy employed to sell it. For example, if interest from foreign publishers is high, co-publishing deals may be established whereby publishers share printing costs in producing large print more info thereby lowering the per-unit cost of the books.
Conversely, if initial feedback is not strong, the print-run of the book may be reduced, the marketing budget cut or, in some cases, the book is dropped from publication altogether. After the end of editing and design work, the printing phase begins.
The first step involves the production of a pre-press proofwhich Popular Thesis Proposal Ghostwriter For Hire Uk printers send for final checking and sign-off by the publisher. This proof shows the book precisely as it read article appear once printed and represents the final opportunity for the publisher to find and correct any errors. Some printing companies use electronic proofs rather than printed proofs.
Once the publisher has approved the proofs, printing — the physical production of the printed work — begins. A new printing process has emerged as printing on demand POD. The book is written, edited, and designed as usual, but it is not printed until the publisher receives an order for the book from a customer.
This procedure ensures low costs for storage and reduces the likelihood of printing more books than will be sold. In the case of books, binding follows upon the printing process. It involves folding the printed sheets, "securing them together, affixing boards or sides to it, and covering the whole with leather or other materials".
The final stage in publication involves making the product available to the public, usually by offering it for sale.
In previous centuries, authors frequently also acted as their own editor, printer, and bookseller, but these functions have become separated.
Once a book, newspaper, or another publication is printed, the publisher may use a variety of channels to distribute it. Books are most commonly sold through booksellers and through other retailers. Newspapers and magazines are typically sold in advance directly by the publisher to subscribersand then distributed either through the postal system or by newspaper carriers. Periodicals are also frequently sold through Popular Thesis Proposal Ghostwriter For Hire Uk and vending machines.
Within the book industry, printers this web page fly some copies of the finished book to publishers as sample copies to aid sales or to be sent out for pre-release reviews. The remaining books often travel from the printing facility via sea source. Accordingly, the delay between the approval of the pre-press proof and the arrival of books in a warehouse, much less in a retail store, can take some months.
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For books that tie into movie release-dates particularly for children's filmspublishers will arrange books to arrive in store up to two months prior to the movie release to build interest in the movie. Publishing is now a major industry with the largest companies Reed Elsevier and Pearson PLC having global publishing operations.
The publisher usually controls the advertising and other marketing tasks, but may subcontract various aspects of the process to specialist publisher marketing agencies. In many companies, editing, proofreading, layout, design, and other aspects of the production process are done by freelancers.