Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education. Many factors determine the meaning of quality of work life QWLone of which is work environment. A group of workforces that is greatly affected in QWL as a result of dynamic changes in work environment is information technology IT professionals.
This article reviews the meaning of QWL, analyses constructs of QWL based on models and past research from the perspective of IT professionals in many countries and in Malaysia. The constructs of QWL discussed are health and well-being, job security, job satisfaction, competency development, work and non-work life balance.
The article concludes that QWL from the perspective of IT professionals is challenging both Farm Business Dairy Plan New the individuals and organizations. The implications of this meaning and constructs for future research in QWL from the perspective of IT professionals are discussed. Meaning of quality of work life. This article reviews literature on Literature Review Of Quality Of Work Life of work life QWL in terms of its meaning and constructs specifically from the perspective of information technology IT professionals.
Thirdly, we discuss the theoretical constructs of QWL and research that used these constructs to highlight their significance to IT profession and organizational performance.
The basic needs are continued to diversify and change according to the evolution of the work system and standards of living of a workforce. Thus a definition by Suttle on the QWL as the degree to which work are able to satisfy important personal basic needs through their experience in the organisation is no longer relevant. Generally jobs in the contemporary work environment offer sufficient rewards, benefits, recognition and control to employees over their actions.
Although to some extent contemporary workforce are compensated appropriately, their personal spending practices, lifestyles, leisure activities, individual value systems, health and so forth can affect their levels of need.
This definition, focusing on personal needs has neglected the fact that the construct of QWL is subjective and continuously evolves due to an evergrowing needs of each and every employees. Hackman and Oldhams further highlight the constructs of QWL in relation to the interaction between work environment and here needs.
They emphasized the personal needs are satisfied when rewards from the organisation, such as compensation, promotion, recognition and development meet their expectations. Parallel to this definition, Lawler defines QWL in terms of job characteristics and work conditions.
LITERATURE REVIEW QUALITY OF WORK LIFE According to G Nasl Saraji, and H Dargahi survey QWL is a comprehensive, department wide program. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Quality of Work Life: Quality of Work Life has always been up in studying organizational behaviour. It is evident from the history that. Constructs of Quality of Work Life: A Perspective of Information and Technology Professionals. Guna Seelan Rethinam. Human Resource Advisor, Ebrahim Khalil Kanoo. effectiveness of organizations and improved quality of life at work for employees. LITERATURE REVIEW Quality of Work Life. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON QUALITY OF Chan and of work life but quality of work life were considered for the literature review. between life on and.
Job design that is able to provide higher employee satisfaction is expected to be more productive. However, he accepted the fact that QWL is complex, because it comprises physical and mental well being of employees.
Later definition by Beukema describes QWL as the degree to which employees are able to shape their jobs actively, in accordance with their options, interests and needs. It is the degree of power an organization gives to its employees to design their work. This means that the individual employee has the full freedom to design click here job functions to meet his personal needs and interests.
It is difficult for the organization to fulfill the personal needs and values of each employee. A good feeling towards their job means the employees feel happy doing work which will lead to a productive work environment. This definition provides an insight that the satisfying work environment is considered to provide better QWL.
Proceeding to previous definitions, Lau, Wong, Chan and Law operationalised QWL as the favourable working environment that supports and promotes satisfaction by providing employees with rewards, job security and career growth opportunities. Indirectly the definition indicates that an individual who is not satisfied with reward may be satisfied with the job security and to some extent would enjoy the career opportunity provided by the organization for their personal as well as professionals growth.
The recent definition by Serey on QWL is quite conclusive and best meet the contemporary work environment. The definition is related to meaningful and satisfying work. This issue of meaningful and satisfying work is often merged with discussions of job satisfaction, and believed to be more favourable to QWL.
This review on the definitions of QWL indicates that QWL is a multi-dimensional construct, made up of a number of interrelated factors that need careful consideration to conceptualize and measure.
It is associated with job satisfaction, job involvement, motivation, productivity, health, safety and well-being, job security, competence development and balance between work and Literature Review Of Quality Of Work Life work life as is conceptualized by European Foundation for the Improvement of Living Conditions To summarise, QWL is viewed as a wide-ranging concept, which includes adequate and fair remuneration, safe and healthy working conditions and social integration in the work organization that enables an individual to develop and use all his or her capacities.
Most of the definitions aim at achieving the effective work environment that meets with the organizational and personal needs and values that promote health, well being, job security, job satisfaction, competency development and balance between work and non-work life. The definitions also emphasize the good feeling perceived from the interaction between the individuals and the work environment.
Understanding the nature of work in the contemporary environment, we define QWL as the effectiveness of work environment that transmit to the link organizational and personal needs in shaping the values of the employees that support and promote better health and well-being, job security, job satisfaction, competency development and balance between work and non-work life.
This definition quantifies the QWL among the IT professionals with the aim to gain leverage in recruiting, motivating and retaining the valuable IT workforce as the nature of work continues to diversify. Who are IT Professionals? One of the fastest growing workforces in the present work environment is the group of information technology IT professionals. The number of personal computers PCs worldwide is close to 1 billion, but the number of IT professionals joining the field is dwindling fast.
According to the bureau, one out of four new jobs will be IT related. IT Literature Review Of Quality Of Work Life are involved in acquisition, processing, storage of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information which demand extensive use of IT skills. The nature of jobs enables the IT professionals to work independently with multinational teams round the clock regardless of their locations read more the world Evans and Wurster, This flexible work arrangement creates new employment trends that makes it possible for the sharing of work around the time zone.
On the other hand it allows the organizations to capitalize on skills and the expertise of some highly competent workforce residing across the world to work remotely with multiple superiors at lower costs Industrial Relations Services, ; Merill, This shapes the organization to a smaller or lean structure. Such a working environment exposes the IT professionals to high task complexity that possibly leads them to high strain, uncertainty, lack of proper personal development opportunities as well as a greater imbalance of work with non-work activities.
No doubt, all other occupations have a capacity to influence the work and non-work life balance, but some occupations are potentially more influential than others. Bagnara, Mariani and Parlangeli have reported that work within the high technology and continuously facing uncertainty are read article more stressful than others.
Martinsons and Cheung further argue that continuous changes in work related factors directly or indirectly affected the IT professionals. Indeed these changes demand them to perform thus, an effective measure to handle its consequences is the responsibility of the organizations. Therefore, one of the ongoing concerns among the IT industries is to mitigate the effects of changes in work environment on job satisfaction, work performance, reliability, health and comfort.
Understanding the constructs of QWL among the IT professionals is essential to provide substantial strategies to counteract such surges De Jonge et al. Constructs of Quality of Work Life. These factors are believed to be appropriate and reliable in the context of Asia generally Literature Review Of Quality Of Work Life Malaysia specifically because some of the factors were used separately by researchers in Japan Fujigaki, Asakura and Haratani, click here, Singapore Lau et al.
The dimensions of QWL selected are health and well-being, job security, job satisfaction, competence development and the balance between work with non-work life. The following section discusses each of the constructs of QWL from the perspectives of IT professionals.
Health and well-being of QWL refer to physical and psychological aspects of an individual in any working environment. Asakura and Fujigaki examined the direct and indirect effect of computerization on workers health and well-being. Their results were similar to the study of Iacovides, Fountoulakis and Kaprins Literature Review Of Quality Of Work Life higher job demand leads to higher strain work environment, hence, it affects their health and well being. An unstrained work environment ensures good health and psychological conditions which enable the employees to perform job and non-work related functions without inhibitions.
Thus, it leads to an unstressful work environment providing comfortable work life. There are many definitions of stress as it is deemed as a subjective phenomenon of QWL.
Physical illness and psychological disorders increase when pressure at work increases.
QUALITY OF WORK LIFE
Stress causes problems to the muscular system and circulation thus, increasing the risk of myocardial infarction which is well documented in psychosomatic studies. They further reported that employees who has been exposed over two years in high strain work environment is associated with higher systolic blood pressure. Depression and Literature Review Of Quality Of Work Life are also another form of stress that contributes towards the deterioration of health.
Employees develop various symptoms of stress that can harm job performance, health and even threaten the ability to cope with the environment. In the past few decades, impressive developments of information technologies have taken place in workplace. Apart from the positive effects of IT there are also potential adverse effects that must not be overlooked. IT related jobs have been associated with repetitive strain as well as problems related to excessive exposure to video display terminals Ng and Munro-Kua, ; Duxbury, Higgins and Johnson, Routine work, badly designed instruments such as computers and furniture in ICT work environment have significantly increased work related disorders Blatter and Bongers, such as musculoskeletal problems Cardosa and Wan Fauziah, A dramatic change of workforce in contemporary work environment has revealed a significant amount of organization change Watson et al.
Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development OECD highlighted that job security is the most controversial issue in contemporary work environment. Job security, the central aspect of QWL represents strength of the organizations to provide permanent and stable employment regardless of the changes in work environment.
Hence, providing a sense of security is important especially in the work environment where many facets of jobs can be outsourced. The increase in industry wide unemployment and outsourcing trends have made it evident go here job security cannot be taken for granted Probst, Jobs in IT industries such as computer programming, software development, system analysis are highly paid but the chance to extend the contract is uncertain.
Therefore, it is observed that IT industry has practiced high employment rate but low job security which has led to the intrinsic insecure work environments that lead to poor QWL.
This move has prompted some critics to view that employers are adopting an active policy of creating a division between the core of highly protected workers, with long-term career perspectives and a periphery of project based IT professionals where employer can leverage scarce and high value talents that tend to be terminated at the end of every project.
The emergence of outsourcing and IT automation concept also has significantly fuelled the sense of job insecurity among IT professionals.
As a conclusion, the unstable work nature and the way working culture are being diversified, point to a considerable impact on the job security among the IT professionals. The ability of organization to provide better QWL to retain their IT professionals has been a critical factor in the effort to achieve strategic business goal.
The exit of IT professionals who seem to know a project in detail can ultimately contribute to the lost of business opportunities. Not long ago, Fortune magazine reported that quitting a job in the technology profession has become an annual event, as the average job tenure in IT shrank to about 13 months, down from about 18 months in Daniels and Vinzant, Changing employers may be an effective career strategy for some IT professionals.
On Literature Review Of Quality Of Work Life other hand, most organizations strive to retain the valued IT professionals by various means. This is one of the realities of QWL among the IT professionals even though the organization provides secured job environment that is expected to provide better QWL.
As IT professionals become vital in leapfrogging a country such as Malaysia into a developed nation, the stable transformation of the existing workforce towards knowledge workers emphasizes the importance of having satisfied employees. Traut, Larsen and Feimen suggested that a better understanding of job satisfaction will ensure a sustainable development of IT workforce.
Although, job satisfaction has been studied ever since the emergence of concept of job Lamond and Spector,it remains as one of the most heavily studied topics in the human resource management especially among the industry like IT which experiencing high turnover culture.
The definition, however, evolves as the changes take place in work environment. Later, cognitive and behavioural components were added to this definition. This means an employee may believe that his or her job is interesting, stimulating, or otherwise. The action of attending work regularly, working hard and intending to stay in the organisation for long period of time read more the positive behaviour which indicates job satisfaction.
In contrast, negative behavioural outcomes reveal dissatisfaction in job. Job satisfaction of an employee differs in meaning and importance in relations to the facets of work. Some may feel pay and fringe benefits that meet his expectations to be extremely important; another, it may be essential to have a job that provides an opportunity for challenging assignment.