What does it mean to be poor? How is poverty measured? Third World countries are often described as developing while the First World, industrialized nations are often developed. What does it mean to describe a nation as developing? A lack of material wealth does not necessarily mean that one is deprived.
Human development is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes. It is about creating an source in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. People are the real wealth of nations.
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Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value. At household, community, societal, national and international levels, various aspects of the above need to be provided, as well as commitment to various democratic institutions that do not become corrupted by special interests and agendas.
Yet, for a variety of reasons, these full rights are not available in many segments of various societies from the richest to the poorest. When political agendas deprive these possibilities in some nations, how can a nation develop?
Politics have led to dire conditions in many poorer nations. In many cases, international political interests have led to a diversion of available resources from domestic needs to western markets. See the structural adjustment section Improve Third World Nations Essay find out more about this. This has resulted in a lack of basic access to food, water, health, education and other important social services.
This is a major obstacle to equitable development. In Augustthe World Bank presented a major overhaul to their estimates of global povertyincorporating what they described as better and new data. The World Bank notes that the incidence of poverty in the world is higher than past estimates have suggested. The main reason is that [previous data] had implicitly underestimated the cost of living in most developing countries.
The data also does not reflect the recent global food crisis and rising cost of energy, which is feared will bring another million into poverty. While this at least sounds encouraging, it masks regional variations, and perhaps most glaringly the impact of China:.
As a result, the World Bank feels that while China is on target to reach the Millennium Development Goals to reduce poverty and tackle various other issues, most other countries are not. While poverty alleviation is important, so too is tackling inequality. Inequality is often discussed in the context of relative poverty, as opposed to absolute poverty. That is, even in the wealthiest countries, the poor may not be in absolute poverty the most basic of provisions may be obtainable for many or continue reading level of poverty may be a lot higher than those continue reading developing countries, but in terms of their standing in society, their relative poverty can also have serious consequences such as deteriorating social cohesion, increasing crime and violence, and poorer health.
Some of these things are hard to measure, such as social cohesion and the level of trust and comfort people will have in interacting with one another in the society.
Nonetheless, over the years, read more studies have shown that sometimes the poor in wealthy countries can be unhappier or finding it harder to cope than poor people in poorer countries. In the context of tackling poverty then, the Overseas Development Institute ODI for example sees poverty reduction as a twin function of.
The ODI also adds that as well as increased growth, additional key factors to reducing poverty will be:. A few places around the world do see increasing rates of growth in a positive sense. But globally, there is also a negative change in income distribution. The reality unfortunately is that the gap between the rich and poor is quite wide in most places. See poverty facts and stats on this site for more examples. The enemy between us? In the lecture, compelling evidence is presented by the two professors that once nations are industrialized, more equal societies almost always do better in terms of health, well-being and social cohesion and that Improve Third World Nations Essay income inequalities within societies destroys the social fabric and quality of life for everyone:.
As they studied the data for industrialized nations, they noticed a clear tendency for countries which do badly or well on one outcome to do badly or well on others. As they note in a presentation of their findings:. An interesting point they make is that economic growth alone — which is supposed to raise the income of all — is not necessarily a good determinant of life-expectancy and well-being: In other words, economic growth is important when developing, but after that equality may be more important.
The following graphs reproduced with kind permission are just examples of the problems they Improve Third World Nations Essay at, but the trends are always the same: From the source for http://uht.me/essay-help/write-a-book-online-now.php above graph, the Equality Trust notes that, The link between inequality and homicide rates has been shown in as many as 40 studies, and the differences are large: The most important reason why violence is more common in more unequal societies is that it is often triggered by people feeling looked down, disrespected and loss of face.
The next example compares social mobility the ability for someone to move up the social ladder, escape poverty etc with inequality:. It may be surprising to see the US at the low end of social mobility when it is touted as the land of dreams and possibilities for anyone, no matter who they are.
We are known for our large menu, delicious food with recipes from around the world, our full bar, and of course live music four nights a week without ever having a. Dissertation house review worksheet alliances ww1 essays argumentative essay concluding paragraph lesson plan Ethan: November 22, Now if you have homework, an. The tools you need to write a quality essay or term paper; Third world countries should try to improve Third World nations find themselves looking for. Third world countries should try to improve This is because in the Third World countries the average GNP Third World nations find themselves looking. Redefining Education in the Developing World. A new approach that builds relevant marketplace, entrepreneurship, does not improve them significantly.
The UK is also surprisingly at the low end. Interestingly, the US and Improve Third World Nations Essay are the biggest proponents of neoliberal economic ideology, which has often played down concerns about inequality and instead focused more on raising the lot for everyone as the interview with Tony Blair noted further below reveals.
Yet, the Equality Trust finds that. It looks as if the American Dream is far more likely to remain a dream for Americans than it is for people living in Scandinavian countries. Greater inequalities of outcome seem to make it easier for rich parents to pass on their advantages. While income differences have widened in Britain and the USA, social mobility has slowed. Bigger income differences may make it harder to achieve equality of opportunity because they increase social class differentiation and perhaps prejudice.
The implications of all these findings are important in many ways.
As the next graph shows, a number of developing nations have achieved average life expectancies that are close to industrialized nations, but with far less carbon emissions in the process:. Addressing inequality implies tackling many, many social, political, economic and environmental issues, for they are all inter-related in many ways. Interestingly, the data they used for the study came from the early s, so are not distorted by the global financial crisis that started around Further below there is more about poverty in industrialized nations, but first, some more on inequality.
The US for a long time has had the largest gap and inequality between rich and poor compared to all the other industrialized nations. The United States currently has the highest number of people in poverty it has ever had since the government began counting inalthough the percentage of people this represents is lower than it was then due to the increased population size since then. IPS also notes factors such as the global financial crisis, stagnant wages and more contribute to this deepening poverty.
But the article also adds that the poverty estimate may be understated because of assumptions made in calculations years ago and changes in costs of living since then as well as regional differences.
Factors included more market income in the top percentages, a larger increase in wage rates for those at the top, Improve Third World Nations Essay in corporate pay, the expansion of technology disproportionately benefiting those at the top, increasing pay for those working in the financial and legal professions, the expansion of financial services, etc.
As a result of that uneven income growth, the share of total after-tax income received by the 1 percent of the population in households with the highest income more than doubled between andImprove Third World Nations Essay the share received by low- and middle-income households declined….
The share of income received check this out the top 1 percent grew from about 8 percent in to over 17 percent in Inthe top 1 percent received about the same share of income as the lowest income quintile; bythe top percentile received more than the lowest two income quintiles combined. Krugman also notes that lack of education is not a driving factor for inequality in the US as some have argued.
What is THIRD WORLD? What does THIRD WORLD mean? THIRD WORLD meaning, definition & explanation
Instead, inequality in America is mainly a story about a small elite pulling away from everyone else, including ordinary college grads. In a short follow-upKrugman adds that the change in income share in that period shows that just about all of the redistribution has taken place from the bottom 80 to the top 1.
Noting that around the world there is a new global working wealthy dominating the new global elite, an earlier New York Times article notes for the US that the here [in the US] between the super rich and everybody else is now greater than at any time since before the Depression of the s.
Furthermore, The richest one-hundredth of 1 percent of American families — about 15, — accounted for less than 1 percent of national income in Bythe figure was 6 percent, according to Tyler Cowen, an economist at George Mason University outside Washington.
That difference translates into hundreds of billions of dollars. Improve Third World Nations Essay like Russia have been seen as having an oligarchical structure. But for a while many have talked of countries like the US also showing similar patterns. And so a long-time concern is that a lot of this increased concentration in wealth is not just from successful business practices, but collusion, corruption and undue influences:.
The rise of government-connected plutocrats is not just a phenomenon in places like Russia, India and China. The generous government bailouts of United States financial institutions prompted Simon Johnson, a professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to compare American bankers with emerging-market oligarchs.
In an article in The Atlantic magazine, which he later expanded into a book, Mr. Johnson wrote that American financiers had pulled off a quiet coup. Globalization has, as noted above, benefited a new working elite globally, not just in the US. They have largely pulled away from their compatriotseven in more egalitarian countries, such just click for source Germany and various Scandinavian countries, while those already with large inequality in emerging developing countries are getting more unequal too.
An analysis of over 43, transnational corporations TNCs has identified a relatively small group of companies, mainly banks, with Improve Third World Nations Essay power over the global economy. The problem with such super concentration is that a small minority can influence the world system disproportionately — what is good for them is not necessarily good for everyone else, for example. In addition, given the enormous position in the world system, a problem in just a handful of them can, and have, had a terrible effect on the rest Improve Third World Nations Essay the economy as the current financial crisis has shown.
Adam Smith, who was amongst the first to argue for free markets, had also warned against the impacts and undue influences of such concentration, but it would seem the modern TNCs have, in his name, achieved the same position. Inequality is usually associated with poorer, developing nations.
But for many years, studies have Improve Third World Nations Essay that many wealthier nations also suffer from inequality, sometimes at levels similar to those of some developing countries. In addition, and almost counter to conventional wisdom, the report finds that in cities that have high levels of inequality increases the chance of more disparities increases, not reduces, with economic growth.
This is because high levels of urban inequality have a dampening effect on economic growth and contribute to a less favorable environment for investment. This exacerbates insecurity and social unrest which, in turn, diverts public and private resources from social services and productive investments to expenditures for safety and security.
Factoring in democratic principles also makes things harder: Government has read article roles but a fundamental one, in democracy, is to build equality.
For legitimacy to exist in society, citizens must perceive that inclusion and equality are fundamental objectives of public authorities. Yet different priorities and interests easily result. For example, the report adds that in many developing cities, wealthier citizens live in private spaces and may even avoid visiting or walking around in city centers.
There is therefore a dilemma that the public sector faces compared to the private sector: In parallel with growing cities are growing informal settlements or slums. Numerous factors create this rise, from poverty in the countryside, changes towards neoliberal economic ideology, corruption, globalization factors and so on. The problem is so immense that, according to UN Habitat, approximately 1 billion people live in slums in the cities of the world — approximately 1 in every 6 people on the planet.