PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professorresearcheror scientist in many fields.
Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in most jurisdictions, use the title Doctor often abbreviated "Dr" or, in non-English speaking countries, variants such as "Dr.
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The requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates. A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions. A PhD candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
In the European Universities Association defined the Salzburg Principlesten basic principles for third-cycle degrees doctorates within the Bologna Process. In the context of the Doctor of Philosophy and other similarly titled degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer to the field or academic discipline of philosophybut is used in a broader sense How To Fix Thesis Statements accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom".
The degree is abbreviated PhD sometimes Ph. In the universities of Medieval Europestudy was organized in four faculties: All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine and final degrees. The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current PhD degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research.
No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements and examinations.
Besides these degrees, there was the licentiate. Originally this was a license to teach, awarded shortly before the award of the master or doctor degree by the diocese in which the university was located, but later it evolved into an How To Fix Thesis Statements degree in its own right, in particular in the continental universities. According to Keith Allan Noblethe first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around In theory, the full course of studies might, for example, lead in succession to the degrees of Bachelor of ArtsLicentiate of ArtsMaster of Arts or Bachelor of MedicineLicentiate of Medicine, Doctor of Medicine.
But before the early modern era, there were many exceptions to this.
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Most students left the university without becoming masters of arts, whereas regulars members of monastic orders could skip the arts faculty entirely. This situation changed in the early 19th century through the educational reforms in Germany, most strongly embodied in the model of the University of Berlin source, founded and controlled by the Prussian government How To Fix Thesis Statements The arts faculty, which in Germany was labelled the faculty of philosophy, started demanding contributions to research,  attested by a dissertation, for the award of their final degree, which was labelled Doctor of Philosophy abbreviated as Ph.
Whereas in the Middle Ages the arts faculty had a set curriculum, based upon the trivium and the quadriviumby the 19th century it had come to house all the courses of study in subjects now commonly referred to as sciences and humanities. These reforms proved extremely successful, and fairly quickly the German universities How To Fix Thesis Statements attracting foreign students, notably from the United States. The American students would go to Germany to obtain a PhD after having studied for a bachelor's degrees at an American college.
So influential was this practice that it was imported to the United States, where in Yale University started granting the PhD degree to younger students who, after having obtained the bachelor's degree, had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and successfully defended a thesis or dissertation containing original research in science or in the humanities.
The PhD degree and similar awards spread across Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The degree was introduced in France inreplacing diplomas as the highest academic degree; into Russia inwhen the Doktor Nauk degree, roughly equivalent to a PhD, gradually started replacing the specialist diplomaroughly equivalent to the MA, as the highest academic degree; and in Italy inwhen PhDs gradually started replacing the Laurea as the highest academic degree.
Research degrees first appeared in the UK in the late 19th century in the shape of the Doctor of Science DSc or ScD and other such "higher doctorates". The University How To Fix Thesis Statements London introduced the DSc inbut as an advanced study course, following on directly from the BSc, rather than a research degree.
The first higher doctorate in the modern sense was Durham University 's DSc, introduced in These were, however, very advanced degrees, rather than research-training degrees at the PhD level— Harold Jeffreys said that getting a Cambridge ScD was "more or less equivalent to being proposed for the Royal Society". Finally, in the current PhD degree was introduced, along the lines of the American and Click model, and quickly became popular with both British and foreign students.
In the English but not the Scottish universities the Faculty of Arts had become dominant by the early 19th century. Indeed, the higher faculties had largely atrophied, since medical training had shifted to teaching hospitals,  the legal training for the common law system was provided by How To Fix Thesis Statements Inns of Court with some minor exceptions, see Doctors' Commonsand few students undertook formal study in theology.
This contrasted with the situation in the continental European universities at the time, where the preparatory role of the How To Fix Thesis Statements of Philosophy or Arts was to a great extent taken over by secondary education: The reforms at the Humboldt University transformed the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts and its more recent successors such as the Faculty of Sciences from a lower faculty into one on a par with the Faculties of Law and Medicine.
There were similar developments in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century many European countries e. To this day this is also still the case for the pontifical degrees in theology and canon law: Until the midth century, advanced degrees were not a criterion for professorships at most colleges. That began to change as the more ambitious scholars at major schools went to Germany for 1 to 3 years to obtain a PhD in the sciences or humanities.
Major shifts toward graduate education were foretold by the opening of Clark University inwhich only offered graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins University which focused on its PhD program.
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By the s, Harvard, Columbia, Michigan and Wisconsin were building major graduate programs, whose alumni were hired by new research universities. ByPhDs were awarded annually, most of them by six universities.
It was no longer necessary to study in Germany. At the start of the 20th century, U. The lack of centralised authority meant anyone could start a university and award PhDs. In Germany, the national government funded the universities and the research programs of the leading professors.
It was impossible for professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students. In the Please click for source States, by contrast, private universities and state universities alike were independent of the federal government.
Independence was high, but funding was low. The breakthrough came from private foundations, which began regularly supporting research in science and history; large corporations sometimes supported engineering programs. The postdoctoral fellowship was established by the Rockefeller Foundation in Meanwhile, the leading universities, in cooperation with the learned societies, set up a network of scholarly journals. After World War II, state universities across the country expanded greatly in undergraduate enrollment, and eagerly added research programs leading go here masters or doctorate degrees.
Their graduate faculties had to have a suitable record of publication and research grants. Late in the 20th century, "publish or perish" became increasingly important in colleges and smaller universities. Detailed requirements for the award of a PhD degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school. It is usually required for the student to hold an Honours degree or a Master's Degree with high academic standing, in order to be considered for a PhD program. In other countries such as the UK there is generally no such condition, though this varies by university and field.
In order How To Fix Thesis Statements submit a successful PhD admission application, copies of academic transcripts, letters of recommendation, a research proposal, and a personal statement are often required. Most universities also invite for a special interview before admission.
A candidate must submit a project or thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed context. Some universities in the non- English -speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the anglophone Ph. A PhD student or candidate is conventionally required to study on campus under close supervision.
With the popularity of distance education and e-learning technologies, some universities now accept students enrolled into a distance education part-time mode. In a " sandwich Ph. A PhD confirmation is a preliminary presentation or lecture that a PhD candidate presents to faculty and possibly other interested members.
The confirmation lecture can be seen as a trial run for the final public defense, though faculty members at this stage can still largely influence the direction of the research. At the end of the lecture, the PhD candidate can be seen as "confirmed" — faculty members give their approval and trust that the study is well directed and will with high probability result in the candidate being successful.
In the United States, this is generally called advancing to Candidacy, the confirmation event being called the Candidacy Examination. PhD students are often motivated to pursue the PhD by scientific and humanistic curiosity, the desire How To Fix Thesis Statements contribute to the academic community, service to others, or personal development.
A career in academia generally requires a PhD, though, in some countries, it is possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate. In North America, professors are increasingly being required to have a PhD, because the percentage of faculty with a PhD is used as a university ratings measure.
The motivation may also include increased salary, but in many cases, this is not check this out result. While this is a small return to the individual or even an overall deficit when tuition and lost earnings during training are accounted forhe claims there are significant benefits to society for the extra research training. A PhD is also required in some positions outside academia, such as research jobs in major international agencies.
In some cases, the Executive Directors of some types of foundations may be expected to hold a PhD [ citation needed ] A PhD is sometimes felt to be a necessary qualification in certain areas of employment, such How To Fix Thesis Statements in foreign policy think-tanks: News wrote in that "[i]f having a master's degree at the minimum is de rigueur in Washington's foreign policy world, it is no wonder many are starting to feel that the PhD is a necessary escalation, another case of costly signaling to potential employers.
The Economist published an article in citing various criticisms against the state of Ph. These included a prediction by economist Richard B. According to the article, only the fastest developing countries e. China or Brazil have a shortage of PhDs. The US higher education systems often offers little incentive to move students through Ph. To counter this, the United States introduced the Doctor of Arts degree in with seed money from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The aim of the Doctor of Arts degree was to shorten the time needed to complete the degree by focusing on pedagogy over research, although the Doctor of Arts still contains a significant research component.
Germany is one of How To Fix Thesis Statements few nations engaging these issues, and it has been doing so by reconceptualising Ph.
This development can be seen in the extensive number of Ph. To a lesser extent, the UK research councils have tackled the issue by introducing, sincethe EngD. Taylor opined in in Nature that total reform of Ph. In German-speaking nations; most Eastern European nations; successor states of the former Soviet Union; most parts of Africa, Asia, and many Spanish-speaking How To Fix Thesis Statements, the corresponding degree to a Doctor of Philosophy is simply called "Doctor" Doktorand the subject area is distinguished more info a Latin suffix e.
D, Doctorate or similar terms. However, it is important to note that programmes with a similar name to 'doctor' should only be included in ISCED level 8 if they satisfy the criteria described in Paragraph For international comparability purposes, the term 'doctoral or equivalent' is used to label ISCED level 8". In Argentina, the admission to a PhD program at public Argentine University requires the full completion of a Master's degree or a Licentiate degree.
Non-Argentine Master's titles are generally accepted into a PhD program when the degree comes from a recognized university. While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States OAShave been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing.
Upon completion of at least two years' research and coursework as a graduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence. This Committee should be composed of examiners that are external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor, respective to the correspondent field of science that the candidate has contributed with original and rigorous How To Fix Thesis Statements, is received after a successful defense of the candidate's dissertation.