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video games areGo is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent.

The game was invented in ancient China more than 2, years ago and is believed to be the oldest board game continuously played today. The earliest written reference to the game is generally recognized as the historical annal Zuo Zhuan [3] [4] c.

Despite its relatively simple rulesGo is very complex, even more so than chess. Compared to chess, Go has both a larger board with more scope for play and longer games, and, on article source, many more alternatives to consider per move.

The lower bound on the number of legal moves in Go has been estimated to be 2 x 10 The playing pieces are called " stones ". One player uses the white stones and the other, black. Once placed on the board, stones may not be moved, but stones are removed from the board when "captured".

Capture happens when a stone or group of stones is surrounded by opposing stones on all orthogonally -adjacent points. When a game concludes, the territory is counted along with captured stones and komi points added to the score of the player with the white stones as compensation for playing second to determine the winner.

As of mid, there were well over 40 million Go players worldwide, the majority of them living in East Asia. To differentiate the game from the common English verb to go"g" is often capitalized, [14] or, in events sponsored by the Ing Chang-ki Foundation, it is spelled "goe". The Korean word baduk derives from the Middle Korean word Badokthe origin of which is controversial; the more plausible etymologies include the suffix "-ok" added to "Bad" creating the meaning "flat and wide board", or the joining of "Bad", meaning "field", and "Dok", meaning "stone".

Go is an adversarial game with the objective of surrounding a larger total area of the board with one's stones than the opponent. Contests between opposing formations are often extremely complex and may result in the expansion, reduction, or wholesale capture and loss of formation stones. A basic principle of Go is that a group of stones must have at least one " liberty " to remain on the board. A "liberty" is an open "point" intersection bordering the group.

Go Good Links Something Thesis enclosed liberty or liberties is called an " eye ", and a group of stones with two or more eyes is said to be unconditionally "alive".

The general strategy is to expand one's territory, attack the opponent's weak groups groups that can be killedand always stay mindful of the " life status " of one's own groups. Situations where mutually opposing groups must capture each other or die are called capturing races, or semeai.

A player may pass on determining that the game offers no further opportunities for profitable article source. The game ends when both players pass, [26] and is then scored. For each player, the number of captured stones is subtracted from the number of controlled surrounded points in "liberties" or "eyes", and the player with the greater score wins the game.

In the opening stages of the game, players typically establish positions or "bases" in the corners and around the sides of the board. These bases help to quickly develop strong shapes which have many options for life self-viability for a group of stones that prevents capture and Go Good Links Something Thesis formations for potential territory.

A "ko" Chinese and Japanese: After the forcing move is played, the ko may be "taken back" and returned to its original position. Some ko fights are referred to as "picnic kos" when only one side has a lot to lose. A difference in rank may be compensated by a handicap—Black is allowed to place two or more stones on the board to compensate for White's greater strength.

Link from the order of play alternating moves, Black moves first or takes a handicap and scoring rules, there are essentially only two rules in Go:.

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Almost all other information about how the game is played is a heuristic, meaning it is learned information about how the game is played, rather than a rule. Other rules are specialized, as they come about through different rule-sets, but the above two rules cover almost all of any played game. Although there are Go Good Links Something Thesis minor differences between rule-sets used in different countries, [36] most notably in Chinese and Japanese scoring rules, [37] these differences do not greatly affect the tactics and strategy of the game.

Except where noted, the basic rules presented here are valid independent of the scoring rules used. The scoring rules are explained separately. Go terms for which there are no ready Go Good Links Something Thesis equivalent are commonly called by their Japanese names. Two players, Black and Whitetake turns placing a stone game piece of their own color on a vacant point intersection of the grid on a Go board. If there is a large difference in skill between the players, the weaker player typically uses Black and is allowed to place two or more stones on the board to compensate for the difference see Go handicaps.

Vertically and horizontally adjacent stones of the same color form a chain also called a string or group that cannot subsequently be subdivided and, in effect, becomes a single larger stone. Chains may be expanded by placing additional stones on adjacent intersections, and can be connected together by placing a stone on an intersection that is adjacent to two or more chains of the same color.

A vacant point adjacent to a stone is called a liberty for that stone. A chain of stones must have at least one liberty to remain on the board. When a chain is surrounded by opposing stones so that it has no liberties, it is captured and removed from the board. Players are not allowed to make a move that returns the game to the previous position. This rule, called the ko ruleprevents unending repetition.

Black has just played the stone marked 1click the following article a white stone at the intersection marked with the red circle. If White were allowed to play on the marked intersection, that move would capture the black stone marked 1 and recreate the situation before Black made the move Go Good Links Something Thesis 1.

Allowing this could result in an unending cycle of captures by both players. The ko rule therefore prohibits White from playing at the marked intersection immediately.

Instead White must play elsewhere, or pass; Black can then end the ko by filling at the marked intersection, creating a five-stone black chain. If White wants to continue the ko that specific repeating positionWhite tries to find a play elsewhere on the board that Black must answer; if Black answers, then White can retake the ko.

A repetition of such exchanges is called a ko fight.

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While the various rule-sets agree on the ko rule prohibiting returning the board to an immediately previous position, they deal in different ways with the relatively uncommon situation in which a player might recreate a past position that is further removed.

See Rules of Go: Repetition for further information. A player may not place a stone such that it or its group immediately has no liberties, unless doing so immediately deprives an enemy group of its final liberty.

In the latter case, the enemy click is captured, leaving the new stone with at least one liberty.

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The Ing and New Zealand rules do not have this rule, [47] and there a player might destroy one of its own groups—"commit suicide". This play would only be useful in a limited set of situations involving a small interior space. Because Black has the advantage of playing the first move, the idea of awarding White some compensation came into being during the 20th century. This is called komiwhich gives white a 6. Two general types of scoring system are used, and players determine which to use before play.

Both systems almost always give the same result.

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Territory scoring counts the number of empty points a player's stones surround, together with the number of stones the player captured. Area scoring counts the number of points a player's stones occupy and surround.

It is associated with contemporary Chinese play and was probably established there during the Go Good Links Something Thesis Dynasty in the 15th or 16th century. After both players have passed consecutively, the stones that are still on the board but unable to avoid capture, called dead stones, are removed.

Area scoring including Chinese: A player's score is the number of stones that the player has on the board, plus the number of empty intersections surrounded by that player's stones. Territory scoring including Japanese and Korean: In the course of the game, each player retains the stones they capture, termed prisoners. Any dead stones removed at the end of the game become prisoners. The score is the number of empty points enclosed by a player's stones, plus the number of prisoners captured by that player.

If there is disagreement about which stones are dead, then under area scoring rules, the players simply resume play to resolve the matter. The score is computed using the position after the next time the players pass consecutively. Under territory scoring, the go here are considerably more complex; however, in practice, players generally Go Good Links Something Thesis on, and, once the status of each stone has been determined, return to the position at the time the first two consecutive passes occurred and remove the dead stones.

For further information, see Rules of Go. Given that the number of stones a player has on the board is directly related to the number of prisoners their opponent has taken, the resulting net score, that is the difference between Black's and White's scores, is identical under both rulesets unless the players have passed different numbers of times during the course of the game.

Thus, the net result given by the two scoring systems rarely differs by more than a point. While not actually mentioned in the rules of Go at least in simpler rule sets, such as those of New Zealand and the U. Examples of eyes marked. The black groups at the top of the board are alive, as they have at least two eyes. The black groups at the bottom are dead as they only have one eye.

The point marked a is a false eye. When a group of stones is mostly surrounded and has no options to connect with friendly stones elsewhere, the status of the group is either alivedead or unsettled. A group of stones is said to be alive if it cannot be captured, even if the opponent is allowed to move first.

Conversely, a group of stones is said to be dead if it cannot avoid capture, even if the owner of the group is allowed the first move. Otherwise, the group is said to be unsettled: An " eye " is an empty point or group of points surrounded by one player's stones.

If the eye is surrounded by Black stones, White cannot play there unless such a play would take Black's last liberty and capture the Black stones. Such a move is forbidden according to the "suicide rule" in most rule sets, but even if not forbidden, such a move would be a useless suicide of a White stone.

Learn more here a Black group has two eyes, White can never capture it because White cannot remove both liberties simultaneously. If Black has only one eye, White can capture the Black group by playing in the single eye, removing Black's last liberty.

Such a move is not suicide because the Black stones are removed first.

In the "Examples of eyes" diagram, all the link points are eyes. The two black groups in the upper corners are alive, as both have at least two eyes. The groups in the lower corners are dead, as both have only one eye. The group in the lower left may seem to have two eyes, but the surrounded empty point marked a is not actually an eye.