Recent research on academically talented students with learning disabilities indicates that they have specific counseling needs that often are not addressed in elementary and secondary school.
This article looks at what kinds of support students with this profile need, and how school counselors can provide it. School counselors work individually and with other educators to meet the developmental needs of all students, including those with special needs or disabilities.
In this article, the results of qualitative research are summarized involving comparative case studies of university students who were both academically talented and learning disabled. These Essays On Learning Disabilities encountered negative experiences during the elementary and secondary school years due to this dual exceptionality that affected their social and emotional development.
An in-depth analysis of their educational experiences enabled researchers to probe their perceptions, and a summary of these findings is presented in this article. Implications for the role that school counselors can play in the identification of students with this profile are discussed, as is the need for the provision of Essays On Learning Disabilities services for this population within the context of comprehensive developmental school counseling programs.
The primary function of the professional school counselor is to work individually and collaboratively with others to implement a comprehensive Essays On Learning Disabilities school counseling program ASCA, The American School Counselor Association ASCA, has outlined school counselors' role in serving these students, including responsibilities such as serving on multidisciplinary teams to identify the special needs student and collaborating with others to provide social skills training in classroom Essays On Learning Disabilities, in small groups, or with individual students.
To effectively implement some of these practices, counselors need to understand the counseling needs of students with specific disabilities. They also need to know how they can incorporate this knowledge into their ASCA-defined roles in serving students within the context of a comprehensive developmental counseling program. Recent research indicates that elementary school counselors are well suited to serve a pivotal role in both providing information related to how to identify students with disabilities and overseeing the various collaborative ASCA roles associated with working with special needs students Isaacs et al.
School counselors could be extremely helpful for some students, such as twice-exceptional students, who are particularly difficult to identify and who may not receive either the educational or the counseling program services they may need Reis et al.
This article discusses recent research on academically talented students with learning disabilities and the specific counseling needs they demonstrate, and counseling intervention strategies that may help to address the unique needs of this population. A major concern is that some educators " Whitmore and Maker summarized their view of this population in this way:.
Intellectually gifted individuals with specific learning disabilities are the most misjudged, misunderstood, and neglected segment of the student population and the community. Teachers, school counselors, and others often overlook signs of intellectual giftedness and focus attention on such deficits as poor spelling, reading, learn more here writing.
Many counseling professionals do not know how to develop appropriate intervention programs for students with disabilities due to a limited understanding of approaches i.
This article discusses recent findings about the counseling needs of talented university students with learning disabilities as well as some of the social and emotional problems they may encounter in elementary and secondary school because of the interaction of their learning problems and giftedness. This "legacy" survives to the present day, as giftedness and high IQ continue to be equated in some conceptions of giftedness. Other researchers such as J. Guilford argued that intellect cannot be expressed in such a unitary manner, suggesting more multifaceted approaches to intelligence.
More current research conducted in the past few decades provided support for multiple components of intelligence. Most of the researchers defined giftedness in terms of multiple qualities and regarded the sole use of an IQ score as an inadequate measure of giftedness. One broadened conception of giftedness that has been widely adopted is Joseph Renzulli'sbehavioral view of giftedness, which is used in school districts more info the country.
This definition, with three components, is inclusive enough to enable the Essays On Learning Disabilities of academically talented students with learning disabilities:.
Gifted behavior link of behaviors that reflect an interaction among three basic clusters of human traits-above average ability, high levels of task commitment, and high levels of creativity. Individuals capable of developing gifted behavior are those possessing or capable of developing this composite set of traits and applying them to any potentially valuable area of human performance. Persons who manifest or are capable of developing an interaction among the three clusters require a wide variety of educational opportunities and services that are not ordinarily provided through regular instructional programs.
The Interaction of Giftedness and Learning Disabilities Educational research has expanded in recent years with the study of various special populations, and new theories of intelligence and assessment Gardner, ; Essays On Learning Disabilities, suggest that the potential of some students is not synonymous with scores on certain intelligence tests.
Current research indicates that it is the interaction of high ability and learning disabilities that may cause confusion and create social and emotional difficulties for students as they struggle to understand why they can know an answer but not be able to say it or write it correctly Olenchak; Reis et al.
Identifying Academically Talented Students with Learning Disabilities Many high-ability students with learning disabilities are identified later in their school career, either at middle school or high school, even though most were referred by teachers or parents for testing or various types of assistance because of difficulties encountered in reading or writing in primary or elementary school Reis Essays On Learning Disabilities al.
Learning problems were evident in those early grades although most students were referred but were not identified as having a learning disability until later in school. The situation is complicated by the fact that the Essays On Learning Disabilities of gifted students often mask their disabilities, and, in turn, their disabilities may disguise their giftedness.
Due to this contradiction between high levels of ability and critical problems with learning, students who are academically talented and also have learning disabilities gifted-LD may be Essays On Learning Disabilities identified. They may be excluded or underrepresented in both programs for students with learning disabilities and programs for gifted and talented students. They also may have a tendency to experience intense frustration with difficult tasks Baum et al.
A comprehensive review of recent research about the characteristics of gifted students with learning disabilities Reis et al.
Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of academically talented university students with learning disabilities about their elementary and secondary school experiences. Of particular interest were the strategies these students used to be successful in school. To accomplish this, qualitative methods were used and a comparative case study analysis was completed.
The coding paradigm suggested by Strauss and Corbin was used to analyze data, and core categories emerged from the data about specific negative occurrences in school that affected the social and emotional development of the participants in the study.
An in-depth analysis of this core category of negative educational experiences is provided, as is a discussion of the findings. Implications for the role that school counselors could have played in the identification of academically talented students are discussed, as are suggestions for the provision of counseling services for this population Essays On Learning Disabilities the context of comprehensive developmental school counseling programs.
Methods A qualitative case study methodology Erlandson et al.
Free Learning papers, essays, and research papers. These results are sorted by most relevant first (ranked search). You may also sort these by color rating or. Classrooms can be perilous in a number of ways for students with learning disabilities. Here are some tips to remember when working with students with LD. LD OnLine is the leading website on learning disabilities, learning disorders and differences. Parents and teachers of learning disabled children will find. In the classroom, it starts simply — sometimes with a struggle to sound out simple words; sometimes with trouble telling time, memorizing the times tables or. Recent research on academically talented students with learning disabilities indicates that they have specific counseling needs that often are not addressed in.
Following the Institutional Review Board Essays On Learning Disabilities Human Subjects approval of the study, open-ended questionnaires and in-depth interviews explored participants' perceptions regarding their school experiences and, in particular, their social and emotional experiences in elementary and high school.
School counselors could be extremely helpful for some students, such as twice-exceptional students, who are particularly difficult to identify and who may not receive either the educational or the counseling program services they may need.
The sample for this research comprised 15 currently enrolled college or university students with learning disabilities.
Screening and documentation of students' disabilities was conducted by examining the university program for students with learning disabilities admissions' information. This documentation material included identification during elementary or secondary school and testing information and screening by university staff.
The sample students for this study were identified as having a high aptitude in elementary click secondary school, but most were not selected for participation in their district's gifted program, if one existed, because of the learning problems they experienced due to their learning disabilities.
Nine of the participants were males and 6 were females; full-scale scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised ranged from toalthough each participant scored or higher in either the verbal or performance scale. Significant differences were found between verbal and performance scores in several of the participants, ranging from 6 to 40 points.
The use of the IQ of or above is not because any particular IQ score can be equated with giftedness, but rather because a score of this level is indicative of a well-above-average aptitude. Using any IQ cutoff to identify academically talented students with learning disabilities is problematic because of discrepancies among scores as well as decreasing scores over time, due to the nature of the learning disability and the inability of some students to learn information measured on these types of assessments.
Miles and Huberman believe that " At a deeper level, the aim is to see processes and outcomes across many cases and thus to develop more sophisticated descriptions and more powerful explanations" p. MerriamMiles and Huberman, and Yin suggest the use of qualitative comparative case study as an appropriate methodology for the indepth study of a number of cases to make analytical generalizations.
Prior to the initial interview, each participant was provided with a biographical questionnaire and written information about the study and his or her anticipated role in it, and permission was sought from each participant for interviews, document review, and parent contacts.
All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed and the field notes and observations made by the researcher at the time of the interviews were added to the transcriptions. Interviews and other data collection procedures followed guidelines suggested by SpradleyStraussand Strauss and Corbin Data Analysis Data analysis was conducted using techniques designed by Strauss and Strauss and Corbin As suggested by these researchers, data analysis coincided with data collection and affected the collection of additional data.
Data analysis techniques included the use of a coding paradigm described by Strauss, and Strauss and Corbin, with three levels: This coding paradigm results in the formulation of a core category or categories of results. The initial type of coding, known as open coding, involved unrestricted coding of all data included in field notes, interviews, and other pertinent documents.
In open coding, data were analyzed and coded. As the researchers verified codes and determined relationships among and between codes, a determination was made about the relationship of a code to a category. After initial categories were determined, axial coding enabled the researchers to specify relationships among the many categories that emerged in open coding and, ultimately, resulted in the conceptualization of one or more categories selected as the "core.
In the final stage of coding, selective coding, the relationships among categories were examined to determine the saturation of categories in the identification of the core category. Results The findings in this study identified a dominant core category for both participants and parents involving the negative experiences that all participants had in school due to the interaction of their abilities and their disabilities and the way that those experiences affected their social and emotional development.
The negative experiences included problems with teachers and peers, as well as internal problems such as low self-confidence and low self-esteem.
Negative School Experiences Every participant recalled negative and painful memories Essays On Learning Disabilities their Essays On Learning Disabilities and secondary school years. These negative school experiences included repeated punishment for not completing work here time, retention in a grade, placement in a self-contained special education class in which the majority of students were developmentally delayed, and negative inappropriate treatment by peers and teachers.
The participants often Essays On Learning Disabilities criticized, punished, or told to work harder. Many of their teachers realized they had high academic potential and many of the participants had superior oral skills that were not matched by their see more or reading skills.
Yet, each participant recounted numerous instances in which their teachers, confused because of the superior abilities they displayed in some areas, repeatedly called these students lazy and told them to "shape up" and "work harder.
New theories of intelligence and assessment suggest that the potential of some students is not synonymous with scores on certain intelligence tests.
For many of these students, the discussion of these school memories was troubling and several indicated that they tried never "to think about what happened to them in school.
As one male student eloquently summarized, "I still have a lot of emotion about it.
college essays about learning disabilities
I had a lot of mistreatment. It [this interview] conjures up memories of things that I don't like to confront. As one female student explained, "I tend to remember the bad teachers better than the good ones. Each student could specifically remember at least one teacher, and most could remember more, who had been a very negative force in their school experiences.
Some teachers denied opportunities that would have enabled the participants to use various compensation strategies that they Essays On Learning Disabilities to use to be successful in school.
One male student explained. Some of my teachers were awful to me. I remember one English teacher. To this day, I hate her.
She would just have the Essays On Learning Disabilities that if I couldn't do it, if I couldn't get an essay exam done in the time, then I just didn't deserve extra time That was the hardest English course I'd ever had, you know, because I couldn't do the work in the allotted time.
Because of the essays Several participants discussed teachers who used various forms of punishment when participants could not do their work in a similar style or pace as their peers.
Essays On Learning Disabilities example, participants discussed missed recesses because they could not finish class work and the detentions they were assigned because they completed what was perceived to be poor work due to laziness or sloppiness as opposed to their learning disabilities. The negative experiences with teachers often caused anger and resulted in insights regarding what could have been done to improve the school experiences of these participants.
One female student recalled. I remember being so angry at the kids who would get the A's and stuff, because I actually knew more than they did, but nobody would let me say anything. If they had given me oral tests, I could tell them anything that they wanted to know about, but they always gave me the written stuff.