According to the Bible, Israel is the name given by God to Jacob. The modern country of Israel includes two distinct nationalities, the Palestinian and the Jewish.
Each nationality is inextricable from its religious identity. The Palestinians are Arabs whose traditions are founded in Muslim culture; the Jews define their culture in large part around their religion as well. Each group identifies as part of a larger, international religious and cultural community, and each has a history in the region that Essay History In Israel Religion back to ancient times. Its total area is 8, square miles 20, square kilometersslightly smaller than New Jersey. The Negev Desert covers the south of the country.
Mountains rise in the central region from the low coastal plain along the Mediterranean. The Jordan River stretches miles kilometers from Syria in the north, emptying into the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea technically a lake is, at 1, feet meters below sea level, the lowest inland sea on earth.
History of Israel
Israel's population in was 5, The population is roughly 80 percent Jewish; of the total population, Most of the 20 percent who are not Jewish are Arab. Hebrew is the nation's official language. Previously, biblical Hebrew had been the language of prayer, whereas the vernacular of most Jews was Yiddish Ladino for Spanish and Portuguese Jews.
David Ben-Gurion's vision of a national language, which would allow Jews from different parts of the world to communicate with each other, was an important element of the Zionist movement.
Arabic is the official language of the Arab minority. English is studied in school and is the most commonly spoken foreign see more. Immigrants from various countries also bring their languages with them, and Spanish, Italian, African dialects, and especially Russian are often heard.
The flag consists of a blue six-pointed star on a white background, with a horizontal blue stripe Essay History In Israel Religion and one below. The Israeli national anthem, Hatikvais over one hundred years old.
Its melody is of unknown origin, although some believe it comes from an Eastern European fold song. Its lyrics Essay History In Israel Religion explicitly Zionist, extolling the return of the Jews to their holy land. The song was banned from the airwaves during the British mandate, and it continues to be somewhat controversial today; there has been some debate as to whether its Zionist message is still valid.
Emergence of the Nation. There here archaeological evidence of settlements in Israel dating from nine thousand to eleven thousand years ago.
It is thought that the first people of the kingdom of Israel migrated from Mesopotamia. Much of the history of ancient Israel is laid out in the Bible. The Israelites were slaves in Egypt from about to Israel B. They wandered in the desert for forty years.
Moses died, and Joshua took the helm and led the people into the land of Canaan, or the Promised Land. The epoch that followed was known as the period of the judges, when Israel was ruled by judges and priests. Saul became the first king of Israel in B. He was succeeded by his rival, David, in Under David's rule, Jerusalem became the capital.
Solomon ascended to the throne in B. In the kingdom split into two parts, Israel and Judah. In Israel was conquered by Assyria, and in it was taken over by Babylonia. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed, and the Jews were exiled to Babylon. In Babylon was conquered by the king of Persia, who allowed the Jews to return to their homeland, where they rebuilt the Temple and Essay History In Israel Religion what became known as the Second Jewish State.
Between and B. In Judas Maccabee led a rebellion that Essay History In Israel Religion the Jews to reclaim Jerusalem, a victory that Jews still celebrate in the festival of Hanukkah.
Judah became an independent state in B. Herod conquered Judah in 37 B. The First Revolt against Rome occurred in 66 C. The Temple was destroyed, and the majority of the Jews were dispersed visit web page the world.
Byzantines ruled the area from toalthough toward the end of this period, from Essay History In Israel Religionthe Jews ruled Jerusalem under Persian jurisdiction. The years to saw the founding of Islam by Muhammad. In Arab Muslims conquered Jerusalem, where their rule lasted until the Turkish conquest in The First Crusaders took the city in In Saladin, the Kurdish ruler of Egypt, conquered Jerusalem.
In the land of Israel, known at this time as Palestine, was taken over by the Ottoman Turks, who ruled for four hundred years. In Napoleon unsuccessfully attempted to take the territory, but did not succeed.
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The first modern Jewish settlement in Palestine was established inand was followed at the end of the nineteenth century by others, as Jews fled pogroms in Russia and Poland. In the First Zionist Conference was held in Basel, Switzerland, and under the initiative of the Hungarian Jew Theodor Herzl, the Zionist movement began its mission to create a Jewish homeland in the territory from which the Jews had been expelled nearly two thousand years earlier.
The Balfour Declaration, issued by Britain inexpressed support for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
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The British used a mandate from the League of Nations as license to rule the area for the ensuing decades, during which time they kept control by feeding the animosity between Palestinian Arabs and Jewish settlers. The British also restricted Jewish immigration to the region, even by Jews who were experiencing persecution at the hands of the Russians, and later the Nazis. The Arabs attempted unsuccessfully to revolt against the British from to ; tensions between Arabs and Jews also escalated, and there were several anti-Jewish riots.
From the time Hitler came to power in until the beginning of World War II ina large number of German Jews managed to immigrate to Palestine despite British restrictions, fleeing the increasingly oppressive regime. Between and more than six million Jews were killed in the Holocaust, a horror that gave new impetus to the movement to form a Jewish state and that caused European nations to recognize the legitimacy of such a claim.
In Palestine, a truce with the British lasted through World War II, but when the war ended, violence again increased, Essay History In Israel Religion between Jews continue reading Arabs and against the British. The Palestinians rejected this plan. On 14 Maywhen Israel proclaimed its independence, the declaration was met by an invasion on behalf of the Palestinians Essay History In Israel Religion the armies of Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq.
The war that followed lasted until the Arab defeat in January A mass immigration of Jews from Europe and Arab countries took place over the first few years after the state's founding, and the economy grew.
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While some Palestinians chose to take up Israeli citizenship, many others immigrated to the primarily Arab West Bank and Gaza Strip, or sought refuge in other Arab nations. Go here Egypt took control of the Suez Canal from France and Britain inIsrael, fearing the increase in power of their unfriendly neighbor, staged an attack in Egypt's Sinai Desert. Several days later, Britain and France joined the offensive.
The United Nations sent peacekeepers, who stayed in the region until When they pulled out, Egypt sent its military back into the Sinai, obstructing the southern Israeli port of Eilat.
Israel responded by attacking on 5 June. Syria, Jordan, and Iraq came to Egypt's defense, but all four nations were defeated. It also resulted in a Jewish occupation of the West Bank and a reunited Jerusalem. The city had been partitioned earlier between the Jews and the Arabs.
The Arab League vowed that the Essay History In Israel Religion would not rest and proceeded to put Israel in a state of siege. Arab terrorists highjacked Israeli airplanes. They also killed Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics. Israel managed to defeat the two armies, but the resulting situation was far from stable. Sadat and Begin shared the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts at reconciliation, and an official peace treaty was signed in in Paris.
In Israel agreed to give up the Sinai, but it also invaded Lebanon, to leave its northern settlements less vulnerable to Palestinian attacks. However, byIsrael had limited its presence to a security strip along the border. The Palestinian uprising called the Intifadah began in Palestinians threw rocks at Israeli soldiers occupying the Gaza Strip and the West Bank; the Israelis retaliated, and the violence escalated, ultimately resulting in hundreds of deaths.
Israel proposed a peace initiative in This same year saw the beginning of a mass immigration by Soviet Jews. The resulting agreement gave the Palestinians responsibility for the Gaza Strip and Jericho. By moving in this direction, the agreements presumed eventual statehood for the Palestinians. Other deals included resolving the issue of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza, as well as A Sephardic family celebrates the Jewish festival of Passover by sharing a picnic in West Jerusalem.
Arafat was to confiscate illegal arms from Palestinians, and both sides were to protect and preserve access to holy sites. These agreements, known as the Oslo Accords after the city where the first secret rounds of talks were heldwere seen as momentous steps in the peace process, and concluded at Camp David with a historic handshake between Arafat and Rabin.
Israel went on see more sign a peace agreement with Jordan inand to begin talks with Syria as well.
However, despite progress at the upper echelons, violence continued. In Israeli prime minister Rabin was assassinated at a peace rally in Tel Aviv. The killer was an ultraconservative Jew who was angered by what he saw as Rabin's overly conciliatory stance toward the Palestinians.
In October a conference at the Wye River in Maryland resulted in an Essay History In Israel Religion by the This web page to get rid of its terrorist groups, to confiscate illegal weapons, and to imprison their own terrorists, in exchange for more land on the West Bank.
The meetings also resulted in the creation of a U. These meetings had some degree of success, and the incremental progress appeared promising.
In Septemberviolence again broke out.