Spellings of Russian names are often translated using phonetic sounds rather than equivalent letters which accounts for variant spellings in different quoted sources throughout this article.
The owners of the ship Quaker City were hoping to interest Czar Alexander II in buying the ship and a visit with him was included in the tour's itinerary.
Supporters of the Czar compared him with President Abraham Lincoln. In Czar Alexander II had issued an Emancipation Manifesto that abolished Russian serfdom -- an economic system built around peasant farm labor.
Russian serfs were tied to the land on which they lived and, in effect, were human property of wealthy noblemen. Although serfs or peasants could not be sold, the land they were tied to could be sold. Estates were described as containing so many "souls" and when land was sold, it was valued at so much per "soul. Czar Alexander II's Emancipation Manifesto was equated with Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of which expressed the principal that the United States government was finally taking a stand against slavery.
Mark Twain was selected by his fellow travelers to help write a speech addressing Alexander II. The speech was delivered by the American consul to Russia. Taking the kind expression that is in the Emperor's face and the gentleness that is in his young daughter's into consideration, I wondered if it would not tax the Czar's firmness to the utmost to condemn a supplicating wretch to misery in the wastes of Siberia if she pleaded for him.
It seemed strange -- stranger than 1905 Russian Revolution Essay can tell -- to think that the central figure in the cluster of men and women, chatting here under the trees like the most ordinary individual in the land, was a man who could open his lips and ships would fly through the waves, locomotives would speed over the plains, couriers would hurry from village to village, a hundred telegraphs would flash the word to the four corners of more info Empire that stretches its vast proportions over 1905 Russian Revolution Essay seventh part of the habitable globe, and a countless multitude of men would spring to do his bidding.
A collection of Russian Revolution essay questions, for teachers and students. These questions have been written and compiled by Alpha History authors. This gallery of Russian Revolution graphics and cartoons has been selected and compiled by Alpha History authors. Click on images to open or close them. Image dates. Abstract. The Russian Revolution of involved the collapse of an empire under Tsar Nicholas II and the rise of Marxian socialism under Lenin and his Bolsheviks. The popular perception of the Russian Revolution in the Western world (and therefore most school textbooks) has typically followed the liberal interpretation. The Russian navy in the year of the abortive revolution of still preserved the harsh conditions and brutal punishments of an earlier age.
I had a sort of vague desire to examine his hands and see if they were of flesh and blood, like other men's. Here was a man who could do this wonderful thing, and yet if I chose I could knock him down. The case was plain, but it seemed preposterous, nevertheless -- as preposterous as trying to knock down a mountain or wipe out a continent.
If this man sprained his 1905 Russian Revolution Essay, a million miles link telegraph would carry the news over mountains -- valleys -- uninhabited deserts -- under the trackless sea -- and ten thousand newspapers would prate of it; if he were grievously ill, all the nations would know it before the sun rose again; if he dropped lifeless where he stood, his fall might shake the thrones of half a world!
If I could have stolen his coat, I would have done it. When I meet a man like that, I want something to remember him by 1. Samuel Clemens's high regard for the Click at this page aristocracy was firmly intact in the summer of when he accepted an assignment from the New York Herald newspaper to cover the visit of the Shah of Persia, Nasr-ed-Din, to London.
Some sources translate the Shah's name as Nasser al-Din.
Ten Minute History - The Russian Revolution (Short Documentary)
He wrote a series of five letters for the Herald in June of reporting the visit of the Shah, the first Persian ruler to visit Europe. Twain described seeing the future ruler of Russia:.
The band greeted him with the Russian national anthem, and played it clear through. And they did right; for perhaps it is not risking too much to say that this is the only national air in existence that is really worthy of a great nation.
We are certainly gone mad. We scarcely look at the young colossus who is to reign over 70, of people and the mightiest empire in extent which exists to-day. We have no eyes but for this splendid barbarian, who is lord over a few deserts and a modest ten million of ragamuffins -- a man who has never done anything to win our gratitude or excite our admiration, except that he managed to starve a million of his subjects to death in twelve months 1a.
As Samuel Clemens cultivated his career as a successful writer and lecturer, he became more keenly aware of world politics. His attitude toward Russian monarchy shifted.
Although he had devoted little attention to Russian politics between anda reading he delivered at the Hartford Monday Evening Club on March 22, indicates his opinion of the Russian aristocracy changed:. Power, when lodged in the hands link man, means oppression -- insures oppression: A 1905 Russian Revolution Essay hardening of Clemens's attitude against the Russian aristocracy, and indeed most of America's, can be traced to a series of articles commissioned by Richard Watson Gilder, editor of Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine.
News reports indicate that Clemens was present at one of George Keenan's lectures as early as March and wept afterwards. There was a very dramatic scene at the meeting of the Literary society last Saturday evening. The members and their guests, including click here distinguished personages, had gathered in the drawing-room.
Presently the company saw a strange figure clad in wretched clothes and fettered with heavy chains source in the doorway. For a moment his friends 1905 Russian Revolution Essay not recognize it as Mr. George Kennan, the vice-president of the society, who had promised to read them some letters from Russian state prisoners in Siberia. The costume, and especially the chains, greatly heightened the effect of the letters, heartrending as some them were, and touching as all of them were in themselves.
The thought that some 1905 Russian Revolution Essay these simple stories of suffering were written by just such a refined and cultivated man as Kennan himself, 1905 Russian Revolution Essay others by women even more refined and cultivated, was strongly impressed upon every one.
Mark Twain, who had actually been weeping, could not refrain from a more extended expression. Rising to his full height and speaking for once with seriousness, he said that were he a Russian he would be a revolutionist -- it would be inevitable.
He might respect the czar as a man, but as a ruler he would destroy him. He believed that the moral power of the civilized world ought to be brought to bear upon Russia to put a speedy stop to such cruelties and outrages in the name of law. The following report from the Boston Daily GlobeFebruary 26,p. Every foot of standing room in the aisles was occupied, some sat upon the window ledges, while others almost literally clung to the walls with their fingers and toes and a solid phalanx of ladies sat all around the edge of the rostrum, and though the regular seat-holders were considerable discomfited the delivery of the lectures was so satisfactory and the subject appealed so strongly to the tenderest feelings of everyone, that not a complaint or sign of dissatisfaction was shown.
The lecture was almost entirely devoted to giving sketches of the lives of famous revolutionists serving long sentences in the mines of Kara, where prisoners were chained to wheelbarrows which could not be removed even at night. One unusually humane officer, touched by the terrible sufferings of men whose only offenses had been a zeal for their country's happiness, had released them from the wheelbarrow chains, giving them the free use of their limbs, but the governor general of Eastern Siberia hearing of it, had ordered them restored.
The humane 1905 Russian Revolution Essay reluctantly notified his captives of the renewed sufferings he was commanded to inflict upon them, and gave them three days in which to prepare for the new order of things. The kind-hearted officer, unable to stand the scenes of suffering, resigned his command with the hope that he might be transferred to some more congenial department; but was told by the governor general that such a man as he was unfit to hold any position under the government.
Several men and women shot themselves, or drank poison made by soaking matches in water, while others became hopeless maniacs. Brief and most tragic histories were related of the lives of the following prisoners at the prison of Kara, all of whom were refined and cultured men and women.
Several of source notable families: Anna Pavlovan Korba, Mme. Yakimova and her child, and Eugene Semyanofski. Impressive photographic portraits of all the characters referred to were thrown upon the screen and their strong and handsome features were gazed at by the large audience with an intense though sad interest.
The lecturer said that political prisoners on the way to Siberia are always photographed somewhere on the march, in order that if they escape their portraits may be sent in every direction, to aid in their capture; and the photographs which Mr.
Kennan procured were got by bribing the photographers, who ran grave risks in parting with them. Teams came to the eyes of many of the auditors at the 1905 Russian Revolution Essay of grievous incidents in the stories of the several unfortunates, and one of the most pathetic incidents mentioned source that of a little boy, born in prison of a noble captive mother, and who entertained the greatest fear of any man not wearing a soldier's uniform.
The child knew no other life than that of the prison, and the only persons whom he had confidence in were the men who held his mother a prisoner. He spoke to Mr. Kennan of his mother's life in the mines, and of his father's 1905 Russian Revolution Essay in another prison miles away, and with smiling face and without any conception of any other existence.
Among the heart-rending incidents of life in the mines of Kara, was the description of hunger strikes by the women, who, in efforts to force the officers to allow them to associate together instead of being isolated, had abstained from eating, voluntarily starving themselves 1905 Russian Revolution Essay 17 days upon one occasion, at the expiration of which time a physician was sent 1905 Russian Revolution Essay them with appliances for injection and orders to force them to take sustenance.
He was touched by her entreaties, and succeeded in so influencing the officers that the women won the strike after 17 days of fasting, and when they were so weak as to be hardly capable of doing anything for themselves.
Pictures of the prison were shown which appeared to be long one-story buildings, built like an ordinary log house. The internal arrangements consisting of a corridor running the full length of the building, with several large coils on each side, each one accommodating many prisoners. The rude windows look out upon a yard formed by the erection of a high stockade. The stockade is a recent adoption, brought about by a visiting inspector, who said grimly while looking from one of the windows out upon the street: One of the most profoundly interested and affected auditors present last evening was a Russian student at Harvard, who has a brother serving a sentence at Kara.
The enthusiasm displayed during the lecture was in marked contrast to anything seen at the general run of lectures in the Lowell Institute course and every allusion to the noble self-sacrifice of the exiles in Siberia, and their efforts to establish a constitutional government in place of the present autocracy of the Czar was greeted with an electrical and rousing response.
Some sources indicate that Clemens attended one of Kennan's six lectures at Lowell Institute and afterwards, in a voice choked with tears, exclaimed "If such a government cannot be overthrown otherwise than by dynamite, then thank God for dynamite" 3. With a steady stream of publicity in the Century and Kennan's lectures, the American public came to accept assassination as an acceptable means of political reform in Russia.
Anti-czarist comments in Mark Twain's writings appear more frequently in his work after George Kennan's publicity tours. In Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heavena manuscript he worked on for over thirty years he compared heaven to Russia:. Well, this is Russia -- only more so. There's not the shadow of a republic about it anywhere 4. Mark Twain scholar Howard Baetzhold theorized that George Kennan's illustrated articles and his visual descriptions of Siberian exiles in the Century were sources for the descriptions of slaves in Connecticut Yankee 4a.
Clemens did not include the preface 1905 Russian Revolution Essay had originally written for the this web page.
It was published after his death by his biographer Albert Bigelow Paine:. I have drawn no laws and no illustrations from the twin civilizations of hell and Russia.
To have entered into that atmosphere would have 1905 Russian Revolution Essay my purpose, which was to show a great and genuine progress in Christendom in these few later generations toward mercifulness -- a wide and general relaxing of the grip of the law. Russia had to be left out because exile to Siberia remains, and in that single punishment is gathered together and concentrated all the bitter inventions of all the black ages for the infliction of suffering upon human beings.
Exile for life from one's hearthstone and one's click the following article -- this is rack, thumb-screw, the water-drop, fagot and stake, tearing asunder by horses, flaying alive -- all these in one; and not compact into hours, but drawn out into years, each year a century, and the whole a mortal immortality of torture and despair.
While exile to Siberia remains one will be obliged to admit that there is one country in Christendom where the punishments of all the ages are still preserved and still inflicted, that there is one country in Christendom where no advance has been made toward modifying the medieval penalties for offenses against society and the State 5. In November Brazil overthrew their monarch Dom Pedro in a bloodless revolution that was called "the most peaceful revolution of the century.
I wish I might live fifty years longer; I believe I should see the thrones of Europe selling at auction for old iron. I believe I should really see the end of what is surely the grotesquest of all the swindles ever invented by man -- monarchy. It is enough to make a graven image laugh, to see apparently rational people, away down here in this wholesome and merciless slaughter-day for shams, still mouthing empty reverence for those moss-backed frauds and scoundrelisms, hereditary kingship and so-called "nobility.
I think there is only one funnier thing, and that is the spectacle of these bastard Americans -- these Hamersleys and Huntingtons and such -- offering cash, encumbered by themselves, for rotten carcases and stolen titles.
When our great brethren the disenslaved Brazilians frame their Declaration of Independence, I hope they will insert this missing link: You already have the advance sheets of my forthcoming book in your hands.
If you will turn to about the five hundredth page, you will find a state paper of my Connecticut Yankee in which he announces the dissolution of King Arthur's monarchy and proclaims the English Republic. Compare it with 1905 Russian Revolution Essay state paper which announces the downfall of the Brazilian monarchy and proclaims the Republic of the United States of Brazil, and stand by to defend the Yankee from plagiarism.
There is merely a resemblance of ideas, nothing more. More info Yankee's proclamation was already in print a week ago. This is merely one of those odd coincidences which are always turning up.
Come, protect the Yank from that cheapest and easiest of all charges -- plagiarism. Otherwise, you see, he will have to protect himself by charging approximate and indefinite plagiarism upon the official servants of our majestic twin down yonder, and then there might be war, or some similar annoyance.